What Country is Mt Everest In?

Mount Everest is located in Nepal, situated in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The actual summit of Mount Everest has the international border between China and Nepal running right across it.

How Tall Is Mount Everest?

The deadly terrain and high altitude certainly makes Mount Everest extremely difficult to climb, but just how high is it?

In 2010 China and Nepal came to an agreement, with Nepal recognising Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844m

However, the current official height of Mount Everest is 8,848 m (29,029 ft)

This followed an argument as to where the official height should be the rock height of 8,844 m (Chinas measurements) or the snow height of 8,848 m (Nepals measurements).

How Old Is Mount Everest And How Much does It Grow Every Year?

Mount Everest is still growing, it grows a small amount every year. To understand how this is happening, we have to look deeper into our planets crust where continental plates collide. Pieces of crust constantly move under, over and around each other, for such huge continental plates, the motion is pretty quick, They move 2-4 centimentres per year, about as fast as fingernails grow.

When two plates collide, one pushes into the other buckling at the margins and causing what is known as uplift to accomodate the extra crust, that’s how Everest came about. Experts and analysts estimate this all started to happen around 60 million years ago.

The Earths Indian plate drifted North bumped into the bigger Eurasian plate and the crust crumbled creating huge uplift, Mount Everest lies at the heart of this action. Everest grows around a quarter of an inch.. or 0.25” every year due to geological uplift.

Mount Everest Weather

The weather on Mount Everest is hostile to all living creatures. The warmest average daytime temperature (in July) is only about -2°F. In January, the coldest month, summit temperatures average -33°F.

However, one of the main issues facing climbers is the presence of high speed winds.

The Jet Stream sits on top of Everest almost all year long, the winds from the Jet Stream can be deadly, not only can the temperatures reach -80°F it is also very strong! Winds of over 175mph have been recorded at the summit and winds over 100mph are common.

Be very careful – if you find yourself stuck in these winds, make sure you have a firm grip as these winds have been known to blow climbers off Everest.

Climbers looking for a safer, more forgiving time to climb should look to go around mid May each year, this is called the ‘Summit Window’. It’s usually a 7-10 day window, this is when the Asian monsoon season is starting and the winds are lighter.

The Jet Stream moves north causing the winds to calm and the temperatures to increase. There is a similar time in November.

Is Mount Everest a Volcano?

No, it is a mountain made up of predominately fragile metamorphic rock due to the multi layer texture.

Where did Mount Everest Get Its Name From?

Everest was first identified by a British survey team, led by Sir George Everest in 1841.

Its first name was ‘Peak 15’ and measured at 29,002 feet in 1856. In Tibet, Everest is known as Chomolungma, this translates to ‘Mother Goddess of the Universe’ and in Nepal it’s known as Sagarmatha, this translates to ‘Goddess of the sky’.

However the modern pronunctiation of Everest is different from Sir Georges which was pronounced EEV-rist.

George Everest

How Long Does It Take To Climb Mount Everest?

If you think you will be able to just turn up at the base camp and jog up Mount Everest then you’re very wrong!

If you attempted this you would probably end up getting High Altitude Cerebral Oedema (HACE) or worse still, die.

Climbing any mountain the same calibre as Everest is all about acclimatizing your body, and getting used to the thing air, this is why an entire climb can take up to 2 months to reach its summit!

How To Acclimatize For The Big Climb?

A lot of this time is used by ascending and descending the mountain, going to and from different camps, this is what is called the acclimatization period.

We will go through this period in steps for you now:-

Once you’ve made it to base camp (Nepal south side – on its own is no easy feat) you will normally spend 3-4 days acclimatizing before making your first move up the mountain. Once you’re ready you will climb about half way up towards the Khumbu Ice fall before returning to base camp.

After a few days of rest, you will then climb up through the Ice fall where Camp One is located, you will stay here for two nights and then head back down to the base camp.

After resting at Base Camp for a few more nights the next part of your acclimatization period will be to ascend up to Camp 1 for the night.

You’ll then continue to Camp 2 at the base of Lhoste for a couple of nights. Once complete, go back down to Base Camp for a rest.

Once rested for a few days you’ll then ascend up to Camp 2 for a few nights and then onto Camp 3 for the night. Camp 3 is halfway up the Lhoste face, this is then followed by a decent all the way back to Base Camp for more rest.

By now, your body should be getting used to the thin air, this will make each ascent quicker than the time before.

All of the above is done over many weeks, this allows your body to adjust to the environment and the journey ahead!

Generally, you’ll stay at Base Camp for three or four nights or whenever the weather window appears to start your summit attempt.

As mentioned above in the other section, summit day is usually in the month of May when the weather is more promising.

The summit push will see you ascend right up to Camp 2 for two nights and then up to Camp 3 for one night.

The following morning you will ascend up to Camp 4, at Camp 4 you will be breathing oxygen to help your body acclimatize and to keep you warm.

It is important to eat and drink along the way but it’s also just as important to get as much rest as possible.

Usually you’ll leave Camp 4 between 9pm and midnight, aiming to be on top of the world early in the morning. This gives you plenty of time to take in the views before making your descent back down to Camp 4 before it gets dark. Remember to pack your head torch, this comes in very handy.

During the descent you will spend your night at Camp 2, this will help regain your energy before heading back to Base Camp.

The above acclimatization plan is used by many climbers but this doesn’t necessarily mean it has to be done on Mount Everest itself.

Just remember, acclimatization is very important on any high altitude mountain, it’s the difference of making it to the top or not!

What Height Do Climbers Use Bottled Oxygen On Mount Everest?

The higher you go, the thinner the air gets. For most people the effects will first become noticeable at around 3,500 m, some even notice it at around 2,500m.

Everest has rarely been climbed without oxygen, most climbers switch to their oxygen tanks at around 7000m or 22,965ft. 

When sleeping, the required flow rate is 0.5 to 1 litre / min delivered through a face mask. Once above 8000m increase this to 2 to 3 1/min.

We highly suggest doing a practice run on setting up your oxygen equipment before you leave for the summit, or even at home before you leave the country, really familiarise yourself! Make sure you know exactly which glasses, goggles, hats work well with your mask.

“Warming up at 28,000 feet”. Photo by Didrik Johnck

How Old Do You Have To Be To Climb Mount Everest?

As you can access Mount Everest from two sides (both being two different countries), each country has imposed their own rules on what they think the age limits should be.

Chinese authorities have imposed an age limit of 18-60 in Tibet, whereas on the other side in Nepal, climbers must be a minimum of 16 years old but there is no maximum age limit.

Who Was The First Person To Climb Mount Everest?

Sir Edmund Hillary from New Zealand, and Tenzing Norgay, a Sherpa from Nepal were the first people who climbed Mount Everest first, this was on May the 29th 1953, they were part of the ninth British expedition lead by Colonel John Hunt, they climbed from the south side.

Edmund Hillary

Hillarys first summit was that of Mount Ollivier in 1939, it was his first major climb after getting interested in mountaineering in secondary school. He then went onto reaching the South Pole over land in 1958 and then onto reaching the North Pole, making him the first person to summit Everest and reach both poles.

Following all this, Hillary dedicated his time to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal by setting up the Himalayan Trust. Because of Edmund many schools and hospitals were constructed in Nepal, this left him admired by many.

Hillary had numerous Honors given to him, upon his death in 2008, he was given a state funeral in New Zealand.

Tenzing Norgay

Tenzing Norgay was born in Nepal, Tsa-Chu in 1914. Because Sherpas didn’t keep birth records at the time, the exact time and date of birth is unclear.

On the advice of the head Lama from the Rongbuk monastery, he changed his name from Namgyal Wangdi to Tenzing Norgay. Tenzing means ‘a wealthy, fortunate follower of religion’.

Tenzing was the 11th of 13 children, the family was very poor and most died at very young ages. His parents wanted him to be a monk, Tenzing didn’t want this and ran away from home to follow his passion for mountain climbing.

Before the 1953 climb, he made many attempts to to reach the top. some of them in 1935 with Eric Shipton, leader of the Reconaissance Expedition.

Norgay and Hillary became very close due to one incident where Hillary almost died falling into a crevasse, thanks to Norgays experience and quick thinking, Hillarys life was saved. Since then Norgay was Hillarys go to guy for teaming up with.

There’s no photo of Edmund Hillary at the top since Norgay had never handled a camera before.

Tenzing went onto found ‘Tenzing Norgay Adventures’ in 1978 – a company providing trekking adventures in the Himalayas; his son Jamling now runs it.

Edmund Hillary & Tenzing Norgay

Who Was the Youngest Person to Climb Mount Everest? 

Jordan Romero, a 13-year-old American boy, made history as he called his mother on a satellite phone from the summit of Mount Everest.  

Coming from the town of Big Bear in California, Jordan finished his journey with his father, stepmother and three Sherpa guides, shattering the previous record held by a Nepalese boy of 16. 

When he began his journey, Jordan promised his mother that he would attempt to do some homework even as he and his father headed for the Chinese side of the mountain.  

Since Nepal insists that climbers must be 16 and the Chinese side of the mountain is less dangerous, the Romero family set out on their trip. 

Jordan’s mother, Leigh Anne Drake, was concerned of course, but was able to watch her son’s progress on a GPS tracker online. After seven days of climbing, she was able to let out a sigh of relief, as she received his call and told him to get home.  

Despite her worries though, Drake was not surprised that her son had succeeded. This impressive climber has conquered the highest mountains on six of the world’s seven continents despite his age, climbing Africa’s Mount Kilimanjaro at only age 10.  

In order to complete his quest to climb the highest mountains on all seven continents, Jordan now only needs to scale Vinson Massif in Antarctica.  

It was a tough trip for him and he knew it might take many attempts and even a few years to climb, but Jordan was prepared both emotionally and physically. As they left the base camp on May 13th, they trekked hours to get to each camp, finally fulfilling Jordan’s dream days later.  

Who Was the Oldest Person to Climb Mount Everest? 

Yuichiro Muira

Yuichiro Miura sets a great example for everyone that you’re never too old to fulfill your goals.

This 80-year-old Japanese man is the oldest person to reach the top of Mount Everest, traveling with his son, Gota and defeating the previous record of a 76-year-old Nepali man in 2008. 

 This trip may have seemed impossible to Miura not long before his trip as he broke his hip and shattered his pelvis in an accident in 2011 and underwent heart surgery only in January of 2013. He believed in his skill though and was confident that he could reach the summit.  

In order to prepare himself for the arduous trek, Miura walked three times a week with loads of 55 to 66 pounds on his back. Miura was no stranger to the dangers of Mount Everest though.

He climbed the peak twice before in 2003 and 2008, at ages 70 and 75, respectively.  

He was the oldest person to climb Mount Everest when he was age 70 and succeeded in his climb a decade later to defeat his own record. It was his dream to climb Everest at any age and after doing so at age 80, his dream has come true. 

Not only has Miura succeeded in climbing Everest, but he has also skied Mount Fuji in 1966 and the highest peaks in Australia and North America in 1967. In 1968, Miura became the first person to ski Mount Popocatepetl in Mexico.  

By 1970, Miura skied down Mount Everest’s South Col as the first person to ski the world’s highest mountain. He’s no stranger to breaking records and making a name for himself, finding joy in winning competitions and becoming one with the mountains. 

Who Was the First Person to Climb Mount Everest Without Oxygen? 

Reinhold Messner

Climbing the highest mountain in the world is intimidating even with oxygen, but can you imagine doing it without oxygen? Reinhold Messner, a great Italian mountaineer and explorer doesn’t have to imagine it anymore.  

Messner was the first man to climb Everest without supplemental oxygen. He understood the danger, but it wasn’t just his goal to reach the summit in the shortest amount of time.  

He also wanted to do it with the least technical equipment and to find new routes that no one has ever traveled before. In Messner’s opinion, danger is always an integral part of mountaineering.  

Without the threat of adventure, life simply loses its meaning. As he climbed up the mountain, Messner was able to disappear from the world for a while, listening and meditating with nature.  

Messner was completely alone in his previous assents, but in his climb without oxygen, he went with Peter Habeler to reach the peak. People were actually unsure about whether it would even be possible to climb Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen.  

Messner proved them wrong in 1978 though, when he made the assent. Two years later in 1980, Messner stood up on Mount Everest again without oxygen, becoming the first man to climb through the steep gorge, Norton Couloir, to get to the summit.  

He decided spontaneously during his assent to bypass the northeast ridge, the route people usually go. Messner ascended all 14 peaks without the usage of oxygen multiple times, although he has been on many adventures in his time.  

He was the first person to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds. Messner even crossed the Gobi Desert alone and has published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and an explorer.  

Who Was the First Woman to Climb Mount Everest?

 

Many men have climbed Mount Everest, but women have cemented themselves in history as well. Junko Tabei, born in 1939, who passed away not long ago in 2016, was the first woman to climb Mount Everest.  

This Japanese woman was not only the first woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest, but also the first woman to ascend all Seven Summits as she climbed the highest peak on every continent.  

Even if she was not as young as Jordan Romero, Tabei set the standard for future mountain climbing women. Back in 1975 in Japan, men were considered the main earners of society.  

Women were meant to stay at home, which is why many people believed Tabei did the unthinkable: she left her daughter at home with her husband and went off to climb Mount Everest. 

Tabei spent much of her life climbing, beginning at age 10. She even married another climber, Masanobu Tabei, whom she met while she was climbing in Japan.  

By 1972, she was a recognized mountain climber in Japan, but this didn’t mean that her trip up Everest would be easy. Tabei joined up with a group of 15 women as part of the Ladies Climbing Club which she’d started in 1969 to go climb the mountain.  

She organized all the media sponsorships and set out even in the midst of disapproval in society and harsh conditions on the mountain.  

While camping, their group was caught off-guard by an avalanche and Tabei was knocked unconscious for six minutes before having to be rescued. Despite these difficulties, Tabei continued to the top.  

She later became the first woman to climb the Seven Summits and has since been focused on advancing the role of Japanese women in society.

She continued to work into her seventies for Japanese women and to find solutions for sustainable mountaineering. 

Who Was the Oldest Woman to Climb Mount Everest? 

Tamae Watanabe

The Japanese are impressive when it comes to mountain climbing, with another Japanese woman making history as the oldest woman to climb Mount Everest.  

Tamae Watanabe, a 73-year-old woman, became the oldest woman to climb Mount Everest, shattering her previous record of 63 years old when she climbed the mountain 10 years prior.  

Over the course of a few days, Watanabe trekked up to the summit, making the final climb at night due to the wind in the mid-morning. She sets an example for everyone to continue to work towards their goals, as she herself was simply a retired office worker.  

With her team of four, Watanabe led the assault on the northern face of Mount Everest in 2012, climbing all night with the Sherpas who coached the climbers. Watanabe may be the oldest woman to climb the mountain, but she was no slouch.  

She was always a very active person and a strong climber. She spent many years climbing some of the most famous mountains in the world, including 5 of the 14 peaks that cap off at more than 26, 246 feet high.  

Watanabe had both the skills and the experience to remain safe, even during the heavy winds that buffeted her team on their descent down the mountain. Her climb was made even more difficult due to the heavy winds at the summit, but she had a good team and a goal in mind.  

She was seeking to defeat a rival Japanese climber, Eiko Funahashi, who was aiming to reach the record of oldest woman herself at age 72.  

Funahashi herself failed to reach the summit in two previous efforts and was eventually defeated by Watanabe, who succeeded in 2012 during her climb. At age 73, Watanabe remains to be the oldest woman to climb the mountain currently. 

Who Was the Youngest Woman to Climb Mount Everest? 

Matching Jordan Romero, the youngest person to climb Mount Everest, Malavath Poorna also reached the summit at age 13.  

She was only a month older than Jordan Romero, making her the second youngest person to climb the mountain, but the youngest girl to climb it when she succeeded in 2014.  

This Indian tribal schoolgirl sought to become a role model for other tribal children, as she hoisted the Indian flag at the summit and left a photograph of Dalit leader BR Ambedkar there.  

Her achievement is that much more impressive, since she climbed the peak on the Tibetan side rather than the Nepalese side. Since Nepal requires climbers to be at least age 16, Poorna had no other choice. 

She made the climb with experienced mountaineer Shekhar Babu and her friend Anand Kumar, a 16-year-old from a poor family like hers.  

Of course, she had a group of Sherpas with her too. This daughter of farm workers lived in a small tribal village where she learned to climb at her school. Despite her fear, the training she received pushed her forward. 

Poorna wanted to inspire young people and students from her kind of tribal background, letting them know that they are capable and able to do amazing things.  

Looking for an opportunity to prove herself, Poorna was encouraged by her parents and teachers to complete the climb, even in the wake of the death of 16 Sherpas not long before. 

When she reached the top, Poorna was overcome with emotion as she took in the beauty of the world around her. Instead of the weather or the conditions to hold her back, the biggest challenge for Poorna was eating packaged food.  

How Many Women Have Climbed Mount Everest? 

We often hear stories of the amazing men who climbed Mount Everest, but there’s no shortage of women who have made the ascent. Over the past 30 years, there have been 418 women who have successfully reached the summit.  

They’ve come from many backgrounds, have been all different ages, nationalities and economic statuses, but they have one thing in common: they have been able to climb the tallest mountain in the world and have come back unscathed. 

These women climbed the mountain for all different reasons, but each of them has amazing stories about their trek up the mountain and their ultimate goals. Some have been amputees, others have been over 70 years old and others have been quite young.  

All of these women teach us all how much we are capable of if we work and train for it. Even if you’re unable to climb the tallest mountain in the world like these women did, you’re certainly capable of fulfilling your own goals. 

Movies may focus on the guys who climb Everest and while those men are amazing, there are numerous amazing women who have climbed this mountain too. Be on the lookout for even more women climbing Everest in the coming years, as both men and women continue to try.

How Many People Have Died on Mount Everest? 

Mount Everest has captured mountaineers’ attention for decades, inspiring them to conquer its peak. Unfortunately, the rough conditions, the occasional lack of good decision-making on the climbers’ side and a pinch of bad luck has led many people who have tried to achieve this elusive goal to their deaths. 

Causes of Death 

The most frequent cause of Mount Everest deaths are avalanches. These cannot be predicted which means there is no way of avoiding them. 

Following avalanches, the second biggest number of deaths is by falling. These falls usually happen on the way back from the top, when exhaustion takes its toll on the climbers. 

The third on the list of deadly dangers that mountaineers face when climbing the highest peak on Earth is the lack of oxygen and the effects this has on a person – both physically and mentally. 

 

Fatalities Throughout History 

Many will ask “who was the first person to die climbing Mount Everest?” or “who was the one to climb it the fastest?” All these statistical data are pretty much just approximations, due to the fact that many deaths or achievements couldn’t be recorded.  

Many people have fallen to their deaths – never to be found – regardless of whether they have managed to reach the summit or not. The first recorded fatalities are multiple – seven Nepalese people have lost their lives on a British expedition in 1922.  

They would be only the first among this nation’s staggering number of casualties. Along the trail towards the Everest summit, around 114 Nepalese have died climbing this mountain. 

The last recorded deaths, with a total of 297, are from May of 2018. This was when three climbers, one Nepalese, one Macedonian and one Japanese climber, perished. 

The Most Disastrous Expeditions 

Some expeditions, expectedly, have been more successful than the others. However, there have been times when sudden natural disasters not only caused the failure of some of these expeditions, but they have tragically wiped out the majority of the expedition members. 

One such sad event occurred in 1996, when 8 members of one of the expeditions were killed in an attempt to get to the peak. Unfortunately, this was just half of the total number of people who lost their lives in various climbing attempts. As a matter of fact, as many as 15 people were lost in the Everest snows that year. 

Years later, 2014 would see the tragic deaths of 17 people who were the casualties of an avalanche that hit Base Camp. 

The next year brought new and more numerous losses – a total of 19 climbers died at Base Camp when it got struck by an avalanche. This time, the avalanche was caused by a sudden earthquake that had killed around 9,000 people in total. 

“The roof of the world” will surely keep attracting the mountaineers’ attention and feeding their ambitions to conquer it.  

Unfortunately, with Mount Everest’s nature being as unreliable and hostile as it is, there will certainly be many more failed attempts at reaching the summit and some of them are bound to be fatal.  

The only thing we can do is respect the effort and admire the dedication of these climbers who dared to set foot somewhere where only the bravest and most capable may thread.

How Many People Have Died Climbing Mount Everest without Oxygen? 

The true, deepest reason behind the alpinists’ desire to conquer the highest peaks in the world will remain known only to themselves. The calling of the mountain and the special relationship which they have is something not many people can understand. 

Some have even chosen to forgo oxygen, which is almost life-saving once a certain altitude is reached. Only a few people have managed the climb while staying true to the mountain’s terms as well as their own principle of not using supplementary oxygen. 

Dangers Involved with the Lack of Oxygen 

In order to grasp the changes and the damage that the human body undergoes during these demanding climbs, we need to know what the lack of oxygen does to our bodily functions. 

Oxygen is responsible for the normal functioning of all of our organs, since it helps in the distribution of nutritive substances via blood. The brain, which puts our whole body into motion, will not get enough nutrition and this, in turn, diminishes its functions. 

Blood will become thicker, as the body starts multiplying red blood cells which carry oxygen, hoping this might help relieve the stress the whole system is going through. 

In order to keep our vital organs safe, our internal safety protocol will order the withdrawal of blood from the less important extremities to the more important core organs. Hence, the danger of frostbites becomes way higher. 

Sleep becomes poor, body regeneration becomes slower and consequently, our judgement becomes impaired. This, along with drastically increased tiredness and decreased motoric functions, can certainly lead to an even worse outcome. 

More extreme cases include brain swelling, which causes irreparable damage to it. In fact, a number of climbers that didn’t have supplement oxygen has undergone this while being completely unaware of it. 

The Tragic Numbers 

The statistics say that two most frequent causes of Everest mountaineers’ deaths are avalanches and falls, followed by the lack of oxygen.  

There are extreme dangers of going through the “death zone” – above 26,000 feet – without additional oxygen, which have already been listed above. It is clear how hard it will be to finish this undertake while relying only on your lungs.  

Only 3% of all those who have successfully finished climbing expeditions have done so without an oxygen mask on their faces.  

However, there are those who were sadly killed in their attempts to conquer this peak. Around 300 of them and over 111 of them have lost their lives in the “Death Zone” – that’s around 22%. Out of all those deaths, as many as 24 were due to the lack of essential oxygen.

Many experienced and truly dedicated climbers will refuse to carry an oxygen bottle around, since they feel that their view might be blocked, or more importantly, that they wouldn’t get the real feel of the mountain’s summit if they don’t get to breathe the air as it is up there.  

The additional oxygen would mimic the feel of a significantly lower peak. On top of that, they feel that it’s cheating – setting your own conditions.  

However, those who understand the importance of staying safe and alive will always have some options regarding the relief of height sickness they may encounter.